Mangaluru, earlier known as Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 kilometres (220 mi) west of the state capital, Bangalore between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges. It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada (formerly South Canara) district in Karnataka.The city has a tropical climate and lies in the path of the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoons. Mangalore was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Alupas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi Nayaks and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.Mangalore is one of the most cosmopolitan non-metro cities of India.It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the West Coast. Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Mulki in the north, covering a distance of over 40 km. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, fresh water streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings.
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